Hall effect switches are electronic devices that use the Hall effect to detect the presence or absence of a magnetic field. The Hall effect is a phenomenon in which an electric current is generated perpendicular to both the direction of the current and an applied magnetic field when a conductor is subjected to the magnetic field.
Hall effect switches typically consist of a Hall sensor, which is a semiconductor device, and a magnet. When a magnetic field is present near the Hall sensor, it generates a voltage proportional to the strength of the magnetic field. This voltage can be used to trigger a switching action.
The operation of a Hall effect switch is based on the principle that the magnetic field affects the flow of current in the Hall sensor. When a magnetic field is absent, the Hall sensor produces a baseline voltage. However, when a magnetic field is applied, it causes a shift in the voltage level. This change in voltage can be used to turn on or off another circuit, such as a transistor, relay, or microcontroller, which controls various functions based on magnetic field detection.